Chongqing printing industry lags behind in the tra

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Chongqing printing industry: the transformation of growth mode lags behind

except for a few large enterprises, more than 80% of the printing enterprises in Chongqing are inheriting the situation of epitaxial low-level repeated construction, far from entering the road of intensive development

in recent years, China's printing industry has developed by leaps and bounds. However, throughout the development process of the printing industry, China's printing industry is still dominated by extensive economic growth. Taking Chongqing as an example, the printing industry in Chongqing has soared from dozens in the early stage of reform and opening up to 3689 now. In reality, it is completely completed in an extensive growth mode, and no one knows the experimental machine better than us. In the new stage of economic development, facing the increasingly tense resource environment and the international competition of economic globalization after China's entry into WTO, a careful analysis of the reasons for the lagging transformation of the growth mode of the printing industry is the basic premise for changing the economic growth mode

causes of extensive growth mode

according to the statistical data of Chongqing Publishing Bureau, as of January 2005, there were 3689 printing enterprises in the city, including 64 publication printing enterprises, 351 packaging and decoration printing enterprises, 144 special typesetting, plate making, printing and binding enterprises, 918 other printing enterprises, and 2212 copy and typing enterprises; In 2004, the total output value of the city's printing industry was 3.12 billion; There are 38000 employees. " During the Tenth Five Year Plan period, the annual average growth rate was 15%. The total value of fixed assets of printing enterprises in the city was 3.2 billion yuan, including 3 with an asset scale of more than 50million yuan, 24 with an asset scale of more than 10million yuan, and 28 with an asset scale of less than 1million yuan. It is not difficult to see from the above data that the development of Chongqing's printing industry is still an extensive economic growth mode in the early stage of reform and opening up. Except for a few large enterprises, more than 80% are inherited and extended low-level repeated construction, which is far from entering the road of intensive development

any mode of economic growth is an objective product of historical development. In the early days of the founding of new China, in the face of a large population, low level of economic development and prominent class contradictions, in order to restore social order, realize the basic requirements of democracy and economic development, it was very necessary for the state to centralize the allocation of resources through the ownership of the means of production by the state. However, with the passage of time, great changes have taken place in the situation at home and abroad. By the middle of the 20th century, many Chinese economists began to pay attention to and analyze the disadvantages of the planned economy, such as ignoring the law of value, ignoring efficiency and eating from the same pot, It points out that it is necessary to re understand the phenomenon of "regardless of cost" in production activities, calculate "political account" and not "economic account", discusses the necessity and importance of reforming the extensive development path, and puts forward the proposition of reforming the planned economy according to the law of value. Unfortunately, these correct ideas have been rejected by the subsequent turmoil (anti rightist, three years of natural disasters, the Cultural Revolution) Flooded

reform and opening up have released great vitality, driving the compensatory and blank filling epitaxial rapid economic growth. In order to solve the "difficulty of buying books" and the "Book shortage" of the cultural revolution, the number of printing enterprises has increased exponentially. A large number of private enterprises have also begun to set foot in printing

in the 1980s, China's packaging and decoration printing industry has just started. The printing field is dominated by books, newspapers and periodicals. The printing volume of teaching materials and teaching aids accounts for more than half of the country. In addition, the threshold for entering the printing industry is low. A printing factory can be set up with a few thousand yuan. In this objective environment, there are more and more printing factories like a snowball. This extensive growth mode continues to this day. The emergence of "buyer's market" in the middle and late 1990s has made structural contradictions increasingly prominent

the structural contradictions in the printing field are mainly manifested in the editing (editing), printing (brushing) and distribution (distribution) of books and periodicals. Before the founding of the people's Republic of China, the editing, printing and distribution of books and periodicals belonged to the same enterprise, such as the Zhengzhong book company, the Commercial Press, the Zhonghua Book Company and so on. In the early days of the founding of the people's Republic of China, the mode of the former Soviet Union was introduced. The Department, printing department and Distribution Department of Xinhua Bookstore were divided into three, and the publishing house, ep~tj factory Bookstore (distribution) was a planned economy at that time. All departments were part of "Chinese companies". Unified revenue and expenditure. Unified resource distribution. Structural contradictions were not prominent. With the deepening of reform, China has entered the transition period of market economy. The state has gradually weakened the central plan and replaced it with the allocation of resources through the market. The economy of enterprises has gradually strengthened. It is no longer a department, workshop or administrative appendage of a national company. It has become an independent economic unit whose auto interior parts are mainly composed of non-metallic materials, which are self-development, self-discipline and responsible for their own profits and losses. In this case, the book and magazine printing factory that is responsible for printing Teaching materials and teaching aids is faced with the contradiction between publishing and distribution income distribution

Since the 1980s, a large number of township enterprises and private enterprises have been involved in printing. State owned book and periodical printing enterprises have to face the challenges of the market economy. However, the system and mechanism are still confined to the slot bed of the planned economy and bear a heavy burden (including political tasks). The editor (Editor) and distributor (distributor) who have been "married" to printing for a long time are in a "monopoly" position, relying on the power granted by the government. They are not only the task allocator, but also the price determiner. Various forms of monopoly provide monopolists with space for price discrimination and aggravate the loss of benefits. Proceeding from the goal of maximizing interests, monopolists have increasingly intensified price discrimination. There has been a huge bias in the distribution of interests in the wealth created by the editing, printing and development parties for a long time. In the mid-1980s, Ling Zonglu, the former director of Chongqing No.1 printing factory, published an article entitled "a preliminary analysis of the reasons for the slow development of the book and periodical printing industry". According to his calculation, the tripartite distribution of interests is: publishing houses account for 60% and distribution departments 25% while the printing departments with the largest investment and output only account for 10 ~ 12%; The tax policy is also unreasonable. The Distribution Department levies 13% of the value-added tax. The printing enterprise that gets the least profit levies 17%. After the article was published, it caused a great shock in the printing industry. The long-term planned economy imprisoned people's thoughts. This article opened a window. People were surprised to find that the balance of distribution was one-sided

private enterprises that are also in price discrimination are treated slightly better. They can enjoy the allocation of market resources and freely cruise in the price game. State owned enterprises should be bound by the plan. For example, when the publishing house is unable to connect due to tasks, the shutdown losses should be borne by state-owned printing enterprises, private enterprises are not bound, and the losses outside the dike should be compensated within the dike ". After entering the 21st century, the cost of students' books rose from a few yuan to hundreds of yuan, dozens of times, but the printing price still remained in the early 1990s. It is strange that this price distortion has lasted for more than a decade

in history, "printing" among editing, printing and distribution is a labor-intensive industry, and the individual remuneration of employees is relatively low. However, since the founding of the people's Republic of China, especially since the reform and opening up, the combination group of editing, printing and distribution has undergone fundamental changes. High technology has entered all aspects of the printing field, printing workers have long changed from labor-intensive to technology intensive, and workers have changed from "human resources" to valuable human capital ". However, due to the asymmetric information of the editing and printing parties, the government's actions are not in place, leading to market failure. The editing, printing and printing parties also follow a historical repetition in the distribution of interests. The labor value of printing workers has not been fairly evaluated for a long time. The "skilled labor" of workers has not been respected, resulting in psychological imbalance. The extensive mode of economic growth cannot be changed

negative effects caused by market failures, such as changes in temperature, product size, humidity, etc.

state owned printing enterprises are established at the same time as publishing houses and distribution departments, and are themselves the product of planned economy. The way of thinking formed by managers and ordinary employees for many years and the political system, ideology Moral culture. Now they are introduced to the market in isolation. Other corresponding measures have not kept up. That is to say, the relationship and obligations have not changed. The source of business has been divided by a large number of private enterprises. It is like carrying a stone mortar to jump to an official. Can he jump to win

according to expert research, the economic efficiency of state-owned enterprises is generally lower than that of non-state-owned enterprises. The survey also shows that private enterprises are the most efficient, followed by foreign-funded enterprises, joint-stock and collective enterprises, and state-owned enterprises are the least efficient

the symmetry between residual control right and residual claim right is the property right basis for the effective operation of enterprises, otherwise, the operation may be unbalanced. The owner of state-owned enterprises is the whole people, and the equity of each citizen is insignificant. In fact, it is the absence of the owner. In the case of asymmetric information, government officials or government authorized monopolies who hold the residual control power of enterprises may take advantage of asymmetric information, abuse control power, reap the interests of individuals or small groups, breed corruption, cause serious loss of state-owned assets, cause "injustice", and undermine the establishment of a harmonious society. Correspondingly, the residual control right and residual claim right of private enterprises are strictly symmetrical. Asset owners enjoy all the benefits brought by the rational use of resources, but also bear the consequences for the abuse of control right. They have sufficient incentive mechanisms to maximize benefits

under the planned economic system, operators and workers are not related to the profits of enterprises. They are only responsible for the completion of production indicators and do not care about the profits, which encourages enterprises to occupy excess material assets and waste, and they have no enthusiasm to reduce costs

due to the imperfection of some reform systems and the dislocation of the functions of some local governments, driven by local interests, a large number of small printing plants with repeated construction are increasing. The industrial structure is the same, the product structure is single, the equipment is backward, and the management is chaotic, which leads to fierce survival competition. All kinds of counterfeiting, counterfeiting, and piracy behaviors occur, and interfere with the order of the cultural market

change the mode of growth: break the monopoly and raise the threshold of access

enterprises are the main body of economic operation and market competition. They are also the micro foundation that determines the mode of economic growth. The reform of enterprise system and mechanism is not perfect. If the monopoly system is not broken, it will affect the transformation of the mode of economic growth, and a harmonious society cannot be established. Therefore, it is necessary to change the growth mode by breaking the monopoly and raising the access threshold

1 break the monopoly and establish a fair market environment. In the real economic life of our country, there are three different forms of monopoly: natural monopoly, administrative monopoly and economic monopoly. The most prominent one is "administrative monopoly" ", this kind of monopoly is the administrative power of the owner of the government organ or its authorized unit, and it is the product of the traditional planned economy system. The administrative monopoly of the editing, printing and development industry chain of the publishing system is also a legacy of the planned economy. It has been more than 20 years since the reform and opening up. It is time to change the unfair policies caused by information asymmetry.

2. The printing factory is in a weak position, and the market behavior cannot change the unfair prices. Teaching materials, teaching materials Auxiliary accounting for 80% of the published amount, on the surface, the printing price of this edition of books is liberalized. In fact, the printing price of teaching materials and teaching aids has long been a model of printing price, and this edition of books, including commodity printing, is also used as a reference. There are three publishing houses and dozens of magazines in Chongqing, and there are more than 200 book and magazine enterprises. There are more monks than workers, and printing houses are at a disadvantage. Everyone is grabbing this

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